The Constituency-Level Elections Archive (CLEA) is a repository of detailed election results at the constituency level for lower house legislative elections from around the world. Our motivation is to preserve and consolidate these valuable data in one comprehensive and reliable resource that is ready for analysis and publicly available at no cost. This public good is expected to be of use to a range of audiences for research, education, and policy-making.


CLEA Release 11 (20180507) includes an additional 95 new elections from 58 countries, increasing our coverage to over 1800 elections from 162 countries and territories. We are also delighted to share with you that the CLEA archive now consists of over 1 million observations!

Overview of CLEA Release 11:

• Eight new countries and territories: Bahrain, Burkina Faso, Fiji, Montserrat, Myanmar, Nauru, Slovenia, Tonga.

• Additions include elections from Argentina, Bangladesh, Cameroon, Croatia, Romania, Senegal, Ukraine, UK, USA, and others.

• New variable, ID (Election Identifier), uniquely identifies each election in the archive. This variable can be useful for identifying elections that span more than one month.

• New supplemental file with positive/negative candidate votes for Latvia's ordinal ballot election system.

• Preferential Vote Counts supplemental file has been updated with results from Australia, Estonia, Ireland, Malta and Nauru.

• Information on district magnitude, seats, and names of sub-national regions that was previously missing for Benin, Croatia, Colombia, Cyprus, Gambia, Romania, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines has been added.

• Candidate names for German elections from 1949 onwards have been added.

• The party nationalization datasets have been updated with data from this release. They are presented in three separate datasets that represent different levels of aggregation: national level, party level, and constituency level.

• A new section in the Data Center lists discrepancies in official sources that cannot be resolved by CLEA.

Multiple data formats in separate files are provided. CLEA data are available in Stata, SPSS, R, and SAS formats, and as Excel and tab-delimited text files. Appendix II (Party Codes) is also available as an Excel file.

We'd like to thank our users for bringing errors and new data to our attention. These have been addressed in the latest release, and the list of changes and corrections can be found at the Data Center, under the Errata section.


The co-directors of the CLEA project are:

Ken Kollman, University of Michigan
Allen Hicken, University of Michigan
Daniele Caramani, University of Zurich
David Backer, University of Maryland
David Lublin, American University

CLEA is grateful for support received from the National Science Foundation, the Taiwan Foundation for Democracy, the Center for Political Studies, the Director's Office of the Institute for Social Research, and the University of Michigan Office of Research and to the many contributors who provide election results and expertise.

This project would not be possible without the assistance of graduate and undergraduate students.