The Constituency-Level Elections Archive (CLEA) is a repository of detailed election results at the constituency level for lower chamber and upper chamber legislative elections from around the world. Our motivation is to preserve and consolidate these valuable data in one comprehensive and reliable resource that is ready for analysis and publicly available at no cost. This public good is expected to be of use to a range of audiences for research, education, and policy-making.


CLEA Release 13 (20190617) includes updates to both the Lower Chamber and Upper Chamber election data, as well as a new Lower Chamber supplemental data file.

Overview of CLEA Release 13

CLEA Lower Chamber:
• Dataset includes around 1900 election results from 168 countries and territories.
• Five new countries: Gabon, Lebanon, Libya, Madagascar, UAE.
• Additions also include elections from Belarus, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Cyprus, Iceland, Kenya, Malaysia, Niger, Pakistan, Paraguay, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Trinidad & Tobago.
• South African apartheid era election results for the Tricameral Parliament (House of Assembly, House of Delegates, House of Representatives).
• Canadian data have been updated substantially through collaboration with Anthony Sayers of the Canadian Elections Database. Data previously missing for the number of eligible voters, votes cast, valid votes, invalid votes, turnout, party votes have been added.
• Additions also include previously missing seats for existing data from Anguilla, Antigua & Barbuda, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Cayman Islands, France, Malaysia, Moldova, Serbia, UK.
• Additions also include constituencies for women and minorities previously missing from existing Pakistan election results.
• New supplemental data file: Lebanon Confessional Quota Preference Vote Counts

CLEA Upper Chamber:
• Dataset includes 125 elections from 13 countries: Argentina, Bhutan, Bolivia, Chile, Czech Republic, Mexico, Nigeria, Palau, Paraguay, Spain, Thailand, US, and Zimbabwe.

Effective Number of Parties and Party Nationalization Measures:
• The party nationalization datasets have been updated with data from this release.
• Party nationalization measures have been calculated for both CLEA Lower Chamber and CLEA Upper Chamber election results and are provided in separate files.
• For each chamber, the party nationalization measures are provided in three separate datasets that represent different levels of aggregation: national level, party level, and constituency level.

The datasets are free and available for download in the following formats: Excel, Stata, SPSS, R, and SAS. Appendix II (Party Codes) is also available as an Excel file. All datasets are are in unicode (UTF -8) character encoding.

We'd like to thank our users for bringing errors and new data to our attention. These have been addressed in the latest release, and the list of changes and corrections can be found in the 'Data and Documentation' section of the website.


The co-directors of the CLEA project are:

Ken Kollman, University of Michigan
Allen Hicken, University of Michigan
Daniele Caramani, University of Zurich
David Backer, University of Maryland
David Lublin, American University

CLEA is grateful for support received from the National Science Foundation, the Taiwan Foundation for Democracy, the Center for Political Studies, the Director's Office of the Institute for Social Research, and the University of Michigan Office of Research and to the many contributors who provide election results and expertise.

This project would not be possible without the assistance of graduate and undergraduate students.