The Constituency-Level Elections Archive (CLEA) is a repository of detailed election results at the constituency level for lower house legislative elections from around the world. Our motivation is to preserve and consolidate these valuable data in one comprehensive and reliable resource that is ready for analysis and publicly available at no cost. This public good is expected to be of use to a range of audiences for research, education, and policy-making.
For more information about CLEA, please visit the About Us page.
The latest CLEA data release includes 169 elections from 61 countries, increasing our coverage to a total of 1591 elections from 136 countries.
Elections from seven new countries are included: Chile, Comoros, Djibouti, Iran, Lithuania, Malta, and Mongolia. Indian election data from 1962 onwards have been updated through collaboration with the Trivedi Centre for Political Data at Ashoka University, which has digitized all Indian election results during this time period.
Several changes have been made to data formats based on feedback from users. Additional data formats in separate files for ease of use are now available. In addition to Stata .dta and SPSS portable files, CLEA data are also available in R .RData format, and as a tab-delimited file for import into Excel. Appendix II (Party Codes) is also available as an Excel file.
Two supplemental files contain variables that only apply to a subset of countries: Indirect Elections (Norway and Sweden), and Preferential Vote Counts (Australia, Ireland, and Malta). In previous CLEA releases, these variables were coded as Missing Data for other countries.
The party nationalization datasets have also been updated with data from this release. They are presented in three separate datasets that represent different levels of aggregation: the national level, the party level, and the constituency level.
We’d like to thank our users for bringing errors and new data to our attention. These have been addressed in the latest release, and the list of changes and corrections can be found at the Data Center, under the Errata section.
The co-directors of the CLEA project are:
Ken Kollman, University of Michigan
Allen Hicken, University of Michigan
Daniele Caramani, University of Zurich
David Backer, University of Maryland
David Lublin, American University
CLEA is grateful for support received from the National Science Foundation, the Taiwan Foundation for Democracy, the Center for Political Studies, the Director's Office of the Institute for Social Research, and the University of Michigan Office of Research and to the many contributors who provide election results and expertise.
This project would not be possible without the assistance of graduate and undergraduate students.