Errata from past data releases are corrected for the latest release
CLEA Release 16 (September 8, 2022)
Every time “Parti pour l’Unité Nationale et la Développement-Salama” is recorded for pty_n, it should in fact be “Parti Nigerien pour la Democratie et le Socialisme, PNDS-Tarayya.”
Two constituencies–Yilan and Yunlin–were assigned the same cst value.
CLEA Release 14 (December 16, 2020)
In Nyong & So’o, the number of valid votes (vv1) should be 29,000 and the number of invalid votes (ivv1) should be 515.
Some of these data were erroneously coded as occurring in 2014.
The codebook incorrectly indicates that the D’Hondt method is only used for constituencies with more than 2 seats. In fact, it is used for all constituencies.
CLEA Release 13 (June 17, 2019)
Posted: June 20, 2019
Eight observations are given the incorrect Country Code (CTR) of 459. The correct Country Code is 458
CLEA Release 12 (November 19, 2018)
Posted: April 15, 2019
France 2012 2017
Party Votes (PV1) does not equal the sum of Candidate Votes (CV1) for parties that ran more than one candidate in a given constiteuncy.
Candidates in the “Aube 3” constituency were incorrectly coded as running in “Aube 2”.
Constituency Codes (CST) are incorrect.
Posted: November 20, 2018
The Election Month (MN) variable incorrectly indicates that the election occurred in March. It occurred in April.
The Constituency Name (CST_N) “Guanabara” is incorrectly coded as “Distrito Federal”.
CLEA Release 11 (May 7, 2018)
Posted: August 27, 2018
The CSU party was given the incorrect PTY party code of 98. The correct party code is 8.
The party name for PTY 265 is missing. The correct party name is “People of the 6th district of Negros Occidental”.
The results of the “Partido Socialista Obrero Español” party are incorrectly attributed to the “Partido Comunista Obrero Español” party for the following constituencies: Albacete, Cantabria, Ciudad Real, Jaén, Málaga.
Posted: June 1, 2018
The results of the “Movimiento Indio Túpaj Katari-1” party are incorrectly attributed to the “Movimiento Indio Túpaj Katari” party. Both parties ran in the same constituencies.
“Movimiento Indio Túpaj Katari-1” should receive PTY code of 61.
The following PV1 values can be used to identify the results for “Movimiento Indio Túpaj Katari-1”: 94, 650, 2146, 10147, 1310, 17, 1559, 813, 287.
The results of the “yukon–mackenzie river” constituency are listed twice and given two CST codes (259 & 260). Only CST code 259 should be used.
The “Christlich Soziale Union” party received an incorrect PTY code of 98. The correct PTY code is 8.
CLEA Release 10 (May 30, 2017)
Posted: March 5, 2018
Albania 2001 2009 2013
“Partia Republikane Shqiptare” is assigned two PTY codes (41 & 43). The correct PTY code is 41.
“Union pour le Benin” is assigned an incorrect PTY code of 27. The correct PTY code is 5040.
Valid Votes (VV1) and Total Votes (VOT1) for the Beni 5 constituency are incorrect. The correct VV1 value is 12905 and the correct VOT1 value is 13627.
“Partido Trabalhista Brasileiro” is assigned an incorrect PTY code of 68. The correct PTY code is 69.
“Partido Trabalhista do Brasil” is assigned an incorrect PTY code of 70. The correct PTY code is 68.
Brazil, 1945-1964; 1981-2014
The pre-coup (1945-1964) and post-coup (1981-present) “Partido Trabalhista Brasileiro” parties were incorrectly considered to be the same party. They are not related despite their name. Separate PTY codes should been assigned to the two parties.
Czech Republic 1996-2013
The “Ceská Strana Sociálne Demokratická” party was incorrectly named as the “Ceskoslovenská Sociální Demokracie” party.
The “National Front” and the “Green Party” are given the same PTY code of 7. The Green party should receive a PTY code of 9.
Ivory Coast 2011
Number of Eligible Voters (PEV1), Total Votes (VOT1), Valid Votes (VV1), and Invalid Votes (IVV1) are incorrect for the “Adiake, Assinie-Mafia Et Etueboue, Communes Et Sous-Prefectures” constituency. The correct values are:
PEV1:16649; VOT1:8153; VV1:7771; IVV1:382.
Valid Votes (VV1) for the St.Catherine Central constituency are incorrect. The correct value is 6198.
Lesotho 2002 2007
The national at-large PR constituency is coded incorrectly.
The results of the “Basotholand African National Congress” party are incorrectly attributed to the “Basutoland African Congress”.
Malaysia 2004 2008
The “National Front – People’s Progessive Party” is assigned an incorrect PTY code of 6004. The correct PTY code is 5001.
“Movimento Ciudadano” is assigned two PTY codes (34 & 24). The correct PTY code is 24.
New Zealand 1993
Party Votes (PV1) for “other” in the Papakura constituency are incorrect. The correct value is 152.
Ukraine 2006 2007
The “Communist Party of Ukraine” is assigned an incorrect PTY code of 26. The correct PTY code is 5.
United Kingdom 2015
“Lewisham People Before Profit” has been assigned two PTY codes (500 & 501). The correct PTY code is 500.
CLEA Release 9 (October 24, 2016)
Posted: May 22, 2017
CST codes for upper tier PR constituencies are incorrect
Party Votes (PV1) are incorrect
Germany, multiple years
“Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands” was assigned two PTY codes (6 & 51). The correct PTY code is 51.
“Mensche Umwelt Tierschutz” was assigned two pty codes (16 & 85) The correct PTY is 85.
“Partei Bibeltreuer Christen” was assigned two PTY codes (18 & 87). The correct PTY code is 87.
“Feministische Partei Die Frauen” was assigned two PTY codes (19 & 77). The correct pty code is 77.
“Allianz für Gesundheit, Frieden und soziale Gerechtigkeit” was assigned two PTY codes (25 & 63).The correct PTY code is 63.
“Anarchistische Pogo-Partei Deutschlands” was assigned two PTY codes (26 & 64). The correct PTY code is 64.
“Marxistisch-Leninistische Partei Deutschlands” was assigned two PTY codes (28 & 84). The correct PTY code is 84.
“Pro Deutsche Mitte – Initiative Pro D-Mark” was assigned two PTY codes (31 & 92). The correct PTY code is 92.
Germany, 1871-1912; 1953-1961
The pre-war (1871-1912) and post-war (1953-1961) “Deutsche Reichsparteie” were incorrectly considered to be the same party. They are not related despite their name. Separate PTY codes have been assigned to the two parties.
Total Votes (TO1) are incorrect for the Asutifi South and Akwatia constituencies.
Party Vote Share (PVS1) is incorrect for the following candidates:
SAMUEL AGYEI (AKWATIA)
ABROKWA SAMUEL (AKWATIA)
BASIL AHIABLE (AKWATIA)
BABA JAMAL MOHAMMED AHMED (AKWATIA)
KOFI ASARE (AKWATIA)
OKYERE GEORGE (ASUTIFI SOUTH)
ALHAJI COLLINS DAUDA (ASUTIFI SOUTH)
YIADOM BOAKYE (ASUTIFI SOUTH)
ALHAJI HARUNA BUKARI DABRE (AYAWASO EAST)
DELETSU ALFRED (HO WEST)
ABLORH DANIEL (KETU SOUTH)
JONAS OSEI BONSU (KINTAMPO NORTH)
PIUS OPOKU BOATENG (KWABRE WEST)
MARTIN BRUCE OPARE (LOWER WEST AKIM)
ABUBAKARI ABASS ALHASSAN (YAPEI/KUSAWGU)
Election was coded incorrectly
Greece 2007 2009
Results for the “Marxist-Leninist Communist Party of Greece” party were incorrectly attributed to the “Communist Party of Greece- Marxist-Leninist”
Several constituencies received incorrect CST codes
The following five constituencies contain duplicate results for all candidates:
sulawesi selatan ii (celebes south ii)
sulawesi tengah (celebes central)
sulawesi tenggara (celebes south-east)
sulawesi utara (celebes north)
sumatera barat i (sumatra west i)
Mexico 2009 2012
Upper-tier PR districts were incorrectly identified
Turkey 2002 2007
Results for the “Saadet Partisi” were incorrectly attributed to “Sosyalist Parti”.
Eleven constituencies (CST_N) contain incorrect Sub-National Geographical Units (SUB). The following are the correct Sub-National Geographical Units for the affected constituencies.
‘Epping Forest’ (CST_N) should be in ‘Eastern’ (SUB)
‘Feltham and Heston” (CST_N) should be in ‘London’ (SUB)
‘North Durham’ (CST_N) should be in ‘North East’ (SUB)
‘North West Durham’ (CST_N) should be in ‘North East’ (SUB)
‘City Of Durham’ (CST_N) should be in ‘North East’ (SUB)
‘Burnley’ (CST_N) should be in ‘North West’ (SUB)
‘Epsom and Ewell’ (CST_N) should be in ‘South East’ (SUB)
‘Canterbury’ (CST_N) should be in ‘South East’ (SUB)
‘Fareham’ (CST_N) should be in ‘South East’ (SUB)
‘Dudley South’ (CST_N) should be in ‘West Midlands’ (SUB)
‘Cardiff West’ (CST_N) should be in ‘Wales’ (SUB)
Results for the “Partido Intransigente” are included erroneously. The “Partido Intransigente” did not run in this election.
CLEA Release 8 (May 23, 2016)
Posted: September 28, 2016
The Number Of Eligible Voters (PEV1) is incorrect for the Uíge constituency.
The Number Of Eligible Voters (PEV1) is incorrect for the Chubut and Neuquén constituencies.
The Number Of Eligible Voters (PEV1) is incorrect for the Fadden constituency.
Party Votes (PV1) are incorrect for the Banteay Meanchey constituency.
Candidate votes are not included.
Regional multi-member constituencies are not included.
Results for the single national at-large constituency are incorrect.
The ‘Ökologisch-Demokratische Partei’ is coded as missing and not assigned the Party Code of ’86’.
Valid Votes (VV1) are incorrect for the Calw, Cloppenburg – Vechta, and Goslar – Northeim – Osterode constituencies.
Votes Cast (VOT1) are incorrect for the Calw constituency.
The Number Of Eligible Voters (PEV1) is incorrect for the Ileias constituency.
Votes Cast (VOT1) are incorrect for the Jutiapa constituency.
The Number Of Eligible Voters (PEV1) is incorrect for the Lola constituency.
Votes Cast (VOT1) are incorrect for the Koundara constituency.
The “Green Leaf-Liberal List” coalition is not assigned a new Party Code. The “Green Leaf” party ran in a coalition with the “Liberal List” party. However, the Party Code variable is only for “Green Leaf”.
Japan, all years
Party codes for the following parties are incorrect:
“Liberal Democratic Party”, “Liberal Party”, “Democratic Party of Japan”, “Japanese Communist Party”, Japan Socialist Party”, “Social Democratic Party”, “Renewal Party”, “Reform Club”.
Japan 2005, 2009, 2012
Only Japan’s 11 multi-member constituencies were included. The 295 single-member constituencies were not included.
Portugal 2009 2011
The “Centro Democrático e Social – Partido Popular” (CDS-PP) party is given an incorrect Party Code of ‘1’. The correct Party Code is ‘4’.
Saint Lucia 1997
Votes Cast (VOT1) and Valid Votes (VV1) are incorrect for the Castries South, and Micoud North constituencies.
Sri Lanka 1977
Valid Votes (VV1) are incorrect for the Beliatta constituency.
Turkey 1987 1991
The “Social Democratic Populist Party” (“Sosyaldemokrat Halkçi Parti”) is incorrectly coded as “Social Democratic People’s Party” (“Sosyaldemokrat Halk Partisi”).
The ‘Nationalist and Conservative Party’ is coded as missing and not assigned the Party Code of ’23’.
Candidates Howard Creighton and Douglas Binderup were incorrectly included in the results for the CA-1 constituency.
The SEAT variable for the following candidates incorrectly indicated that they were elected:
“shannon, daniel j.”, “hayden, suzanne”, “lee, robert c.”, “guyll, ernest eric”, “orloski, richard j.”, “tomkin, bernard”, “choby, willeam a.”, “schaller, audrie zettick”, “innelli, john”, “hicks, john f.”, “smith, lewis dupont”, “stretton, samuel c.”, “johnston, gordon r.”.
CLEA Release 7 (August 12, 2014)
Posted: March 10, 2016
Party Nationalization Datasets
The Local Entrant Measure (LOCAL_E) has been calculated incorrectly.
Australia 1954 1975
Two districts were missing for 1954 and one district was missing in 1975. Election results are now available in R7.
The “Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs” party is incorrectly coded as “Die Freiheitlichen” in the PTY_N variable.
Cape Verde 1995 2001 2006 2011
The Valid Votes (VV1) are incorrect
There is a mismatch between the Party Name (pty_n) and Party Code (pty) for fifteen parties:
“50Plus Das Generationen-Bündnis” incorrectly coded as “Elsässer”,
“Bürgerrechtsbewegung Solidarität” incorrectly coded as “Deutsche Staatspartei”,
“Die Grünen” incorrectly coded as “Christlich-Sozialer Volksdienst (Evangelische Bewegung)”,
“Deutschland” incorrectly coded as “Deutsch-Nationale Volkspartei”,
“Partei Rechtsstaatlicher Offensive” incorrectly coded as “Deutsche Freiheitliche Volkspartei”,
“Die Republikaner” incorrectly coded as “Deutsche Freisinnige Partei”,
“Bayernpartei” incorrectly coded as “Deutsche Volkspartei”,
“Zentrum” incorrectly coded as “Deutsches Landvolk”,
“Die Grauen – Graue Panther” incorrectly coded as “Deutsche Partei”,
“Die Linkspartei.Partei des Demokratischen Sozialismus” incorrectly coded as “Deutsch-Demokratische Partei”,
“Familienpartei Deutschlands” incorrectly coded as “Deutsche Reichspartei”,
“Die PARTEI” incorrectly coded as “Forschrittliche Volkspartei”,
“Freie Demokratische Partei” incorrectly coded as “Dänen”
“Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands” incorrectly coded as “Deutsche Konservative”,
“Partei für Soziale Gleichheit, Sektion der Vierten Internationale” incorrectly coded as “Fortschrittspartei”.
The Constituency Name (CST_N) “eichsfeld – nordhausen – unstrut-hainich-kreis ii” is incorrectly coded as “eisenach – wartburgkreis – unstruthainich-kreis ii”.
The regional-level tier (cst=901-920) results for 2006 have been removed due to a processing error. Results for the two-round SMD tier remain in R7.
Results for the “Bahujan Samaj Party” were incorrectly attributed to the “Bharatiya Socialist Party”.
The “PDI PERJUANGAN” party has been incorrectly coded as “PDI” in the PTY_N variable. The “PNI FM” and “PNI MM” parties have been incorrectly coded as “PNI” in the PTY_N variable.
There is a mismatch between the Party Name (PTY_N) and Party Code (PTY) for five parties:
“Party of Democratic Forces” incorrectly coded as “Party of Rebirth and Reconciliation of Moldova”,
“Party of Rebirth and Reconciliation of Moldova” incorrectly coded as “Party of Spiritual Development ‘United Moldova’”,
“Peasants’ Christian Democratic Party of Moldova” incorrectly coded as “Republican Party of Moldova”,
“Social Democratic Party of Moldova” incorrectly coded as “Social Political Movement of the Roma in the Republic of Moldova”,
“Social Political Movement of the Roma in the Republic of Moldova” incorrectly coded as “United Moldova Party”.
Sierra Leone 2007
The VV1 totals do not reflect official estimates.
Turkey 1983 1987 1991 1995 1999 2002 2007 2011
The following 27 of the country’s 81 constituencies are missing:
Samsun, Siirt, Sinop, Sivas, Tekirdag, Slap, Trabzon, Tunceli, Sanliurfa, Servant, Van, Yozgat, Zonguldak, Aksaray, Babyburt, Karaman, Kirikkale, Batman, Sirnak, Bartin, Aradahan, Igdir, Yalova, Karabuk, Kilis, Osmanabad, Duzce.
Constituency Codes (CST) are misapplied and linked to multiple Constituency Names (CST_N).
UK 1910 1918 1931
A number of constituencies contain duplicate results for independent candidates.
UK 1998 1992
“The Green Party” is incorrectly coded as “The Ecology party” in the PTY_N variable.
Two candidates (Willis Sweet; Alex E. Mayhew) in the State of Idaho are listed twice.
The CTR is incorrect for Wisconsin constituencies 8 and 9. The official U.N. country code is 840 for the United States.
US 1974 1978 1980 1986
Election results for the following constituencies are now available: NE-3 (1974), TN-5 (1978), WI-8 (1980), WI-9 (1980), FL-3, FL-4, FL-5, FL-7, FL-8, FL-15, FL-17, LA-1, LA-3, LA-4 and OK-6 (all 1986).
CLEA Release 6 (November 18, 2013)
Posted: December 4, 2013
The Gibraltar Socialist Labour Party/Liberals was incorrectly coded as a party, rather than an alliance. The PTY variable has been updated with the correct alliance code.
Spain, all years
Two electoral coalitions were incorrectly given party codes in R5. The PTY variable has been updated with the correct alliance code for Bloque Nacionalista Gallego and Izquierda Unida for all elections.
Sweden 1866 1872 1875 1878 1881 1884 1887 1890 1893 1896 1899 1902 1905 1908
Updated district-level data has been provided to CLEA by Jan Teorell. The CLEA dataset has been updated for the 1872-1908 elections to report more information. New data includes information on votes cast for the “first loser” and updated coding of VV1, IVV1, and TO1. In addition, the election for 1866 has been dropped from the CLEA dataset as improved information was not available.
UK 1950 1951 1955 1959 1964 1966 1970
The Woolwich, West constituency had incorrectly been coded as “Woolwich, East” for CTR_N, CST_N and CST variables. CTR_N has been changed to “UK,” and CST_N and CST have been updated to “Woolwich, West.” In addition, constituency codes have been updated to reflect these changes for these years.
The correct value for VV1 was incorrectly coded as VOT1. Due to this error, PVS1 was not calculated for this year. VV1 has been correctly coded and PVS1 calculated. VOT1 is now coded as missing. CST_N was missing the district number and this has been corrected. Constituencies were still uniquely identified by CST.
US 1974 1978 1980 1982 1986 1988 1996 2006
Various constituencies were missing for these elections. Constituencies have been added for Florida from 1974 – 1982, and 1988, Arkansas from 1974-1980 and 1988, and Louisiana from 1974 – 1982. Pennsylvania missing constituencies have been added for 1978 and 1980. Georgia had missing constituencies added for 1982, and constituencies were added for North Carolina in 1974. Oklahoma was missing constituencies from 1974 – 1980. Texas had missing constituencies in 1996 and 2006. Several constituencies have now been added so that these elections are now complete. Constituency codes have been updated to reflect these changes. We are aware of and working to fix missing constituencies in 1974 (NE-3), 1978 (TN-5), and 1980 (WI-8 and WI-9) and 1986 (FL-3, FL-4, FL-5, FL-7, FL-8, FL-15, FL-17, LA-1, LA-3, LA-4 and OK-6). The 1986 data are available as a .dta file upon request.
CLEA Release 5
Posted: December 17, 2012
Australia 1922 1925 1931 1943
Multiple winners were listed when total SEAT should equal 1. The correct winners have been indicated.
Canada, multiple years
In a number of elections, there were multiple constituencies with the same name in different provinces. These CST_N were incorrectly assigned the same CST code. They have been renumbered to correct for duplicate constituency names used in different provinces. In addition, there were several early provincial elections where more than one winner was allowed. SEAT has been updated for these elections to correctly identify both winners.
The SEAT variable for CST_N “Constituency VII” was corrected. Additionally, values of -990 for the SEAT variable were changed to 0 for all constituencies in this election.
Czech Republic 1996
In CST_N “Severo-moravský kraj” for PTY_N “Hnutí duchodcu za životní jistoty” SEAT was changed to 0.
Dominican Republic 2002
SEAT for CST_N “Pedernales” was corrected.
This election did not contain constituency-level data and has been dropped from the release.
Data for the year has been removed due to processing and original source errors.
India, all years
In a number of elections, there were multiple constituencies with the same name in different states. These CST_N were incorrectly assigned the same CST code. They have been renumbered to correct for duplicate constituency names used in different states.
Indonesia 1999 2004
SEAT corrected for all constituencies in 1999 and for CST 36 in 2004.
Jamaica, all years
RG for Jamaica had two values: North America and Caribbean. This was corrected to Caribbean.
In the source data, VV1 is greater than VOT1 for CST 81-84 and 86-98, thus IVV1 is negative.
Lithuania, all years
Data for this country have been removed due to processing and original source errors.
In two districts (Mchinji West and Lilongwe North-West), total votes (VOT1), valid votes (VV1), party votes (PV1) and party shares (PVS1) are inaccurate. This is an error in the source data, and these values were replaced with -990.
New Zealand 1972
SEAT for CST_N “Remuera” and “Riccarton” was corrected (winner is the National Party candidate in both instances).
Sri Lanka 1960 1965 1970 1977
PV1 and derivative variables were corrected for the following:
YR CST PTY_N
1960 74 Elephant
1965 97 Hand
1970 41 Hand
PV1 and PVS1 values were replaced with -990 in the following election due to an error in the source data:
YR CST PTY_N
1977 109 Bell
Data for this election have been removed due to processing and original source errors.
US 1972 1990
The number of districts was corrected. Previous releases list 438 districts for 1972 and 436 for 1990. The errors have been corrected and duplicate districts removed.
US, all years
Independent candidates that were originally given a party unique code have been relabeled with an independent code (e.g. 6001+).
CLEA Release 4 (December 17, 2012)
Posted: September 19, 2011
ST/ SEAT Variable
The variable ST was renamed SEAT in the fourth release of the data. This change was made to avoid confusion, as ST is a program command in some data analysis programs.
In two districts (Sunyani East and Evalue), party votes (PV1) and party shares (PVS1) were incorrectly entered in the previous releases of the data and have been corrected for the fourth release.
Several variables (VOT1, PEV1, TO1 and CST codes) were incorrect in previous releases of the data for Hungary 1998. Data for this country and year have been dropped from this release and will be corrected and included in a future release of the data.
The variables PEV1 and TO1 were incorrectly entered for two districts (Mzuzu City and Nkhata-Bay Central). This was corrected in the fourth release.
Norway 1882 1885 1894 1897 1900 1903
The variable MAG was incorrectly entered as “0” for several districts. It was corrected to -990 (missing value) in the fourth release of data.
UK 1950 1951 1955 1959 1964 1966 1970
The variable CTR_N was incorrectly entered as “Woolwich, East” rather than “United Kingdom” for the “Woolwich, East” district for the years listed above. It was corrected to read “United Kingdom” in the fourth release of data.
CLEA Release 3
Posted: December 21, 2010
In two districts (Sunyani East and Evalue), party votes (PV1) and party shares (PVS1) are inaccurate. This is an error in the source data, and users should proceed with caution when using Ghana 1996.
Iceland 1934 1937 1942(June)
In six districts (Skagafjaròarsýsla, Eyjafjaròarsýsla, Noròur-Múlasýsla, Suòur-Múlasýsla, Rangárvallasýsla, and Árnessýsla) voters were allowed to cast two votes in two-member constituencies. But for two-member constituencies, official sources present the data of valid votes counted as ballots, not as votes. Thus, using valid votes (VV1) in the calculation of party vote shares (PVS1) produced erroneous results in the CLEA dataset (ex. Party vote share (PVS1) being bigger than one). In the fourth release, the party vote shares (PVS1) were recalculated by using the total sum of party votes (PV1) as a denominator.
The party votes (PV1) and shares (PVS1) were incorrect in several districts. This was corrected in the third release.
In two districts (Mchinji West and Lilongwe North-West), total votes (VOT1), valid votes (VV1), party votes (PV1) and party shares (PVS1) are inaccurate. This is an error in the source data, and users should proceed with caution when using Malawi 2004.
In Appendix I, Mexico is attributed with a majority runoff system for presidential elections. This is incorrect. Mexican presidents are elected by plurality rule. This has been corrected in the third data release.
Nigeria 1979 1992
These elections are not constituency-level data and have been dropped from the third release.